How to block shutdown or reboot in Debian xfce when other users logged in

I want to prevent users to start shutdown or reboot when another user is logged in. Users can be a TTY user (Ctrl+Alt+F3) or a ssh user from a client host.

In OpenBSD, I use polkit org.xfce.session.policy with a rule file to prevent such actions.

I need to find how to do this in Debian Testing (aka Buster).
I found org.freedesktop.login1.policy with actions

  • org.freedesktop.login1.power-off
  • org.freedesktop.login1.power-off-multiple-sessions.

and made rule files for these actions but it does not block shutdown or restart.
It seems to me that polkit is not responsible alone for these actions.

I don’t know where to look for this; perhaps systemd or PAM ?


On OpenBSD and NetBSD, by default, nobody is allowed to shutdown or reboot from GUI.
You must create a rule file in /usr/local/share/polkit-1/rules.d/ like this one :

polkit.addRule (function (action, subject) {
    if ( == "org.xfce.session.xfsm-shutdown-helper")
        return polkit.Result.YES;

On Debian, by default, all users can shutdown or reboot from GUI.
There is no rule file for org.xfce.session.xfsm-shutdown-helper or org.freedesktop.login1.power-off.

I try to add my rule file with return polkit.Result.NO; with no avail
On debian, i use lightdm and on BSD, i use xdm.

Here is Solutions:

We have many solutions to this problem, But we recommend you to use the first solution because it is tested & true solution that will 100% work for you.

Solution 1

Debian Testing Buster use polkit 1.05, so there is no rule files and no js syntax.
You must use the old policykit ini-style.
To prevent users to start shutdown or reboot when another user is logged in,
you must create two pkla files in /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/

cat /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/Reject_All_Users_To_login1_power-off-multiple-sessions.pkla 
[Reject all users to use login1_power-off-multiple-sessions]

cat /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/Reject_All_Users_To_login1_reboot-multiple-sessions.pkla
[Reject all users to use login1_reboot-multiple-sessions]

But, it is not enough, because xfce too install a action to shutdown or reboot in
You must also create a pkla file for this action in /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/

cat /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/Reject_All_Users_To_Use_Xfce_Session_Policy.pkla 
[Reject all users to use xfce_session_policy]

Note: Use and implement solution 1 because this method fully tested our system.
Thank you 🙂

All methods was sourced from or, is licensed under cc by-sa 2.5, cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0

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