How to implement retry mechanism into python requests library?

I would like to add a retry mechanism to python request library, so scripts that are using it will retry for non fatal errors.

At this moment I do consider three kind of errors to be recoverable:

  • HTTP return codes 502, 503, 504
  • host not found (less important now)
  • request timeout

At the first stage I do want to retry specified 5xx requests every minute.

I want to be able to add this functionality transparently, without having to manually implement recovery for each HTTP call made from inside these scripts or libraries that are using python-requests.

Here is Solutions:

We have many solutions to this problem, But we recommend you to use the first solution because it is tested & true solution that will 100% work for you.

Solution 1

This snippet of code will make all HTTP requests from the same session retry for a total of 5 times, sleeping between retries with an increasing backoff of 0s, 2s, 4s, 8s, 16s (the first retry is done immediately). It will retry on basic connectivity issues (including DNS lookup failures), and HTTP status codes of 502, 503 and 504.

import logging
import requests

from requests.adapters import HTTPAdapter, Retry

logging.basicConfig(level=logging.DEBUG)

s = requests.Session()
retries = Retry(total=5, backoff_factor=1, status_forcelist=[ 502, 503, 504 ])
s.mount('http://', HTTPAdapter(max_retries=retries))

s.get("http://httpstat.us/503")

See Retry class for details.

Solution 2

This is a snippet of code I used to retry for the petitions made with urllib2. Maybe you could use it for your purposes:

retries = 1
success = False
while not success:
    try:
        response = urllib2.urlopen(request)
        success = True
    except Exception as e:
        wait = retries * 30;
        print 'Error! Waiting %s secs and re-trying...' % wait
        sys.stdout.flush()
        time.sleep(wait)
        retries += 1

The waiting time grows incrementally to avoid be banned from server.

Solution 3

Possible solution using retrying package

from retrying import retry
import requests


def retry_if_connection_error(exception):
    """ Specify an exception you need. or just True"""
    #return True
    return isinstance(exception, ConnectionError)

# if exception retry with 2 second wait  
@retry(retry_on_exception=retry_if_connection_error, wait_fixed=2000)
def safe_request(url, **kwargs):
    return requests.get(url, **kwargs)

response = safe_request('test.com')

Solution 4

from requests.adapters import HTTPAdapter
from urllib3.util.retry import Retry


MAX_RETRY = 2
MAX_RETRY_FOR_SESSION = 2
BACK_OFF_FACTOR = 0.3
TIME_BETWEEN_RETRIES = 1000
ERROR_CODES = (500, 502, 504)


def requests_retry_session(retries=MAX_RETRY_FOR_SESSION,
    back_off_factor=BACK_OFF_FACTOR,
    status_force_list=ERROR_CODES, 
    session=None):
       session = session  
       retry = Retry(total=retries, read=retries, connect=retries,
                     backoff_factor=back_off_factor,
                     status_forcelist=status_force_list,
                     method_whitelist=frozenset(['GET', 'POST']))
       adapter = HTTPAdapter(max_retries=retry)
       session.mount('http://', adapter)
       session.mount('https://', adapter)
       return session



class ConfigService:

   def __init__(self):
      self.session = requests_retry_session(session=requests.Session())

   def call_to_api():
      config_url = 'http://localhost:8080/predict/'
      headers = {
        "Content-Type": "application/json",
        "x-api-key": self.x_api_key
      } 
      response = self.session.get(config_url, headers=headers)
      return response

Solution 5

I was able to obtain the desired level of reliability by extending requests.Session class.

Here is the code https://bitbucket.org/bspeakmon/jira-python/src/a7fca855394402f58507ca4056de87ccdbd6a213/jira/resilientsession.py?at=master

EDIT That code was:

from requests import Session
from requests.exceptions import ConnectionError
import logging
import time


class ResilientSession(Session):

    """
    This class is supposed to retry requests that do return temporary errors.

    At this moment it supports: 502, 503, 504
    """

    def __recoverable(self, error, url, request, counter=1):
        if hasattr(error,'status_code'):
            if error.status_code in [502, 503, 504]:
                error = "HTTP %s" % error.status_code
            else:
                return False
        DELAY = 10 * counter
        logging.warn("Got recoverable error [%s] from %s %s, retry #%s in %ss" % (error, request, url, counter, DELAY))
        time.sleep(DELAY)
        return True


    def get(self, url, **kwargs):
        counter = 0
        while True:
            counter += 1
            try:
                r = super(ResilientSession, self).get(url, **kwargs)
            except ConnectionError as e:
                r = e.message
            if self.__recoverable(r, url, 'GET', counter):
                continue
            return r

    def post(self, url, **kwargs):
        counter = 0
        while True:
            counter += 1
            try:
                r = super(ResilientSession, self).post(url, **kwargs)
            except ConnectionError as e:
                r = e.message
            if self.__recoverable(r, url, 'POST', counter):
                continue
            return r

    def delete(self, url, **kwargs):
        counter = 0
        while True:
            counter += 1
            try:
                r = super(ResilientSession, self).delete(url, **kwargs)
            except ConnectionError as e:
                r = e.message
            if self.__recoverable(r, url, 'DELETE', counter):
                continue
            return r

    def put(self, url, **kwargs):
        counter = 0
        while True:
            counter += 1
            try:
                r = super(ResilientSession, self).put(url, **kwargs)
            except ConnectionError as e:
                r = e.message

            if self.__recoverable(r, url, 'PUT', counter):
                continue
            return r

    def head(self, url, **kwargs):
        counter = 0
        while True:
            counter += 1
            try:
                r = super(ResilientSession, self).head(url, **kwargs)
            except ConnectionError as e:
                r = e.message
            if self.__recoverable(r, url, 'HEAD', counter):
                continue
            return r

    def patch(self, url, **kwargs):
        counter = 0
        while True:
            counter += 1
            try:
                r = super(ResilientSession, self).patch(url, **kwargs)
            except ConnectionError as e:
                r = e.message

            if self.__recoverable(r, url, 'PATCH', counter):
                continue
            return r

    def options(self, url, **kwargs):
        counter = 0
        while True:
            counter += 1
            try:
                r = super(ResilientSession, self).options(url, **kwargs)
            except ConnectionError as e:
                r = e.message

            if self.__recoverable(r, url, 'OPTIONS', counter):
                continue
            return r

Solution 6

Method to retry certain logic if some exception has occured at time intervals t1=1 sec, t2=2 sec, t3=4 sec.
We can increase/decrease the time interval as well.

MAX_RETRY = 3
retries = 0

try:

    call_to_api() // some business logic goes here.

except Exception as exception:

    retries += 1
    if retries <= MAX_RETRY:
        print("ERROR=Method failed. Retrying ... #%s", retries)
        time.sleep((1 << retries) * 1) // retry happens after time as a exponent of 2
        continue
    else:
        raise Exception(exception)

Note: Use and implement solution 1 because this method fully tested our system.
Thank you 🙂

All methods was sourced from stackoverflow.com or stackexchange.com, is licensed under cc by-sa 2.5, cc by-sa 3.0 and cc by-sa 4.0

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